ND -  neue diffusion
ein dokumentationsprojekt



im Zentenarjahr von Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959)

São Paulo, 27.Januar - 1. Februar 1987


Brasilianische Gesellschaft für Musikwissenschaft – Sociedade Brasileira de Musicologia

Konzept und wissenschaftliche Leitung

Antonio Alexandre Bispo

Vergleichende Musikwissenschaft &
Ethnomusikologie in Brasilien

- Stand der Forschung -

28. Januar
Museum Paulista der Universität São Paulo (Ipiranga-Museum)
Ethnologische Sektion

Ausstellung Indigener Musikinstrumente

Leitung: Prof. Tekla Hartmann

Mitarbeiter: Antonio Sérgio Azevedo Damy, Renata Pazinatto Leite Antonio, Cristina da Glória

Vorstellung der Arbeit
Bibliographie der Ethnomusikologie Brasiliens
Cristina da Glória

30. Januar

Universität des Staats São Paulo, UNESP

Institut der Künste

Auditorium J. Baptista Julião

Ehrenvorsitz: Martin Braunwieser
Präsident ad hoc: Prof. Nicole Jeandot
Universität São Judas Tadeu

Die Bedeutung von Martin Braunwieser und Oneyda Alvarenga in der Geschichte der Vergleichenden Musikwissenschaft und Ethnomusikologie Brasiliens
Dr. Antonio Alexandre Bispo
Vorsitzender des wissenschaftlichen Beirats der Brasilianischen Gesellschaft für Musikwissenschaft

„Universals“ in Musik: Bericht von Forschungen
Prof. Dr. Kilza Setti
Zentrum für Studien der Kunstsoziologie, Philosophische Fakultät der Universität São Paulo

Can one estimate vocal standards found in the way the inhabitants of the coast of São Paulo sing in the light of the theory of „universals“ of music? In the specialized literature on the one hand, a tendency to recognize „the universals“ in various cultures can be found, and on the other, care is taken not to use the term unduly. In the discussions on the question the following vocal proceedings were taken into consideration: 1) the custom of singing in thirds; 2) that of responsorial singing; 3) long sounds; an infinite melody; 4) the use of vocal ornaments; 5) the emission of the voice by the glottis and in falsetto; 6) sobbing and cackling; 7) an accompaniment of finger clacking, clapping, stamping of the feet and rythmic shouts; 8) the use of melismas; 9) the use of repetitions and variations. Should the present ways of using these proceedings in the Paulista’s way of singing be studied inm the light of the concept of „universals“ of music or accept the alternative of just valuating them as peculiar musical phenomena and exclusively pertaining to the musical system in question, without relating them to any other documents? (Übers. E. Florence Dewey)

Anmerkungen zur Ethnomusikologie in Brasilien

Prof. Maria Elizabeth Lucas
Porto Alegre, RS

On examining the debates which have taken place for nearly a hundred years, on what is now known as Ethnomusicology, including various denominations, definitions and yet other definitions in Europe and the United States, we verified the fact that such polemics hat little effect in Brazil. The authoress gives a brief vision of the historical development of Ethnomusicology starting from a North American point of view. It deals with Ethnomusicology and ethnomusicological Musicology and anthropological Ethnomusicology. In the first place, she would like to be realistic and face the fact of the position of the intelectual in the internatinal scientific market. (EFD)

Die Situation der ethnomusikologischen Studien in Brasilien

Prof. Rafael José de Menezes Bastos (M.A.) (A.B.)

Abteilung für Sozialwissenschaften der Bundesuniversität von Santa Catarina

The word Ethnomusicology can be understood as a label or a concept. The present situation of Ethnomusicology considered as a label is critical. It pretends to situate Ethnomusicology in the presence of an approach to the musical phenomen in whatever society. After having resumed the history of Musicology, starting from the North American point of view, the autor says that the differences are not on the level of the object but on the subject. (EFD)

Die Mehrstimmigkeit in der Bororo-Musik

Maria Helena Rosas Fernandes

Komponistin. Poço de Caldas, Minas Gerais

In Brazilian indigenous music, singing in more than one voice is common and the polyphony arises from the simultaniety of the groups singing the same melody at different intervals; imitation at successive entries; the interpretation of the melodic line of another voice; the decreasing numbers of tonal sections corresponds to the predominance of sequential harmony, a Baroque with the increasing appearance of Classical characteristics, the tendency is for a simplification in the harmonic basis. In the Xavante music there are very few polyphonic manifestations. Interesting examples of polyphony appear in the Waura music, but Bororo music is specially rich in this sense. It is urgent to record Bororo music and the National Musicology needs more studies in the field of native music. (EFD)

Reibtrommel in Brasilien

Prof. Léa Maria da Rocha

Institut der Künste, Universitätt Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP)

Research on the occurrence, denomination, characteristics, different use and function of the „cuíca“ or „puíta“ is due to tue request of C. Marcel-Dubois. Doupts as to the hypothesis of the African origen of the „cuica“. In the Iberian Insular, this instrument is called „zambomba“ (Spain) or „ronca“ (Portugal). In Brazil, amongst other instruments, it is used in the „folguedo do Boi“ in Maranhão. The authoress tries to verify the use and diffusion of the instrument in smaller urban centres and specially its presence in rural folkloric manifestations. These instruments are very important in the study of „para-music“. (EFD)

Arabische Musik in São Paulo: Aspekte von Produktion und Konsum

Prof. Maria do Carmo Vendramini

Koordination von Kulturaktivitäten, Universität São Paulo

The object of this work is to study the traditional survival of Arabian music in the municipality of São Paulo. It deals with methodological questions referring to the research, the history of the Arabs in Brazil, the influence of Arabian culture on Brazilian culture, the musical activities developed by the immigrants settled in São Paulo and the meaning, the ways of divultation and continuity of these practices. The making of musical instruments was of particular interest. Judging from the information collected, it is quite clear what trouble the immigrants went to be assuring the continuity of the musical tradition of their countries of origin. The intense musical activities diminish as the generations go by. If the immigrants did not continue to enter the country, undouptedly their music would soon be forgotten. (EFD)


Museum für Volkskünste und -techniken (Folklore-Museum)
Auditorium J. Ribeiro

Ehrenvorsitz: Prof. Dr. Rossini Tavares de Lima
Präsident ad hoc: Prof. Dr.Dr. Julieta de Andrade
Schule der Folklore der Brasilianischen Gesellschaft für Folklore

Die Bedeutung von Rossini Tavares de Lima in der Folklore- und Musikforschung
Prof. Dr. José Geraldo de Souza

Vorsitzender der Brasilianischen Gesellschaft für Musikwissenschaft

Between 1950 und 1953, the President of the Brasilian Society of Musicology came in contact with Rossini Tavares de Lima, one of the most important representatives of Folklore in Brazil. One of the high points of the development of this field was the realization of the first International Congress of Folklore and of the VI International Conference of Folklore Music on the occasion of the IV centenary of the town of São Paulo (1954). Since then, the Museum of Folklore continues to be the centre of these studies in Brazil. (EFD)

Das Archiv von Tonaufnahmen der Schule und des Museums für Folklore

Prof. Niomar de Souza Pereira

Leiterin des Tonarchivs

The School and Museum of Folklore are not specialized in music, although musical phenomena receives special attention in the studies and research work. The amount of recordings are of great cultural importance as it is the result of the activity in research work realized during decades. The oldest recorded documents were made by the Centre of Folkloric Research Mário de Andrade, founded by Rossini Tavares de Lima in 1946 in the Dramatical and Musical Conservatory of São Paulo. There is also a documentation of recordings compiled by the „Comissão Paulista de Folklore“ in 1959, during the investigations on the folklore of the north coast of São Paulo. The outstanding result of this expedition was the discovery of the use of the marimba. (EFD)

Die „Música immensurata“ und die „Música Suporte“ beim Cururu

Prof. Dr. Dr. Julieta de Andrade

Direktorin der Folklore-Schule des Museums für Folklore

The communication deals with the difficulties of notation of the Brazilian folklore music, taking into consideration an adequate recovery of the pieces coollected. The roots of the Cururu can be found in the troubadours in the south oif France, from whence the Cururu arrived in Brazil through the Iberian Peninsular. The „toadas“ are not difficult to transcribe, excepte those which show a certain freedom in their interpretation. The difficulty arises in the transcription of the „baixões“. Up to now they have been written in a two-four time. However the study of Medieval Music and poetry reveals the poverty of the written system used up to the present and various suggestions can be put forward based on acquired experiences. Brazilian folklore music demands to be worked on by both folklorists and musicologists. (EFD)

Der „Gabinete de Pesquisas Folclóricas“ des Instituts der Künste der Bundesuniversität von Rio Grande do Sul

Prof. Ilka D’Almeida Santos Herrmann

The „Gabinete de Pesquisas Folclóricas“ des Instituts der Künste der Bundesuniversität von Rio Grande do Sul, was founded in 1976 and aimed at incentivating the research of folklore. Since its foundation, numerous public classes, seminaries and courses have been organized. The Center has published a few works on folklore and subsidizes the realization of two researches. One, on the musical styles of „Vaneira“, „vaneirão“ and „bugio“, which is a large collection of pieces from Rio Grande do Sul. Another on „A trova e a Décima“ von Rio Grande do Sul, which examines „ cantos em desafio“ 8a musical competition between two popular singers) and the narrative song, characteristic of the region. (EFD)

Die Trova und die Décima von Rio Grande do Sul
Prof. Rose Marie Reis Garcia

Gaúcho-Institut für Tradition und Folklore

This research work makes part of a larger project of studies on folklore music in the south and south-east of Brazil. The troubadours played an important part as authors of the texts (and sometimes of the music), as interpreters and instrumentalists in the music of Rio Grande do Sul. The „cantoria em desafio“ and the „cantoria narrativa“ (Décima) go back to a European tradition. The predominant „canto de desafio“ is now known as „Trova em Mi Maior de Gavetão“ and consists in a song alternating between two „challengers“. A musical interlude, played on a mouth organ and/or a guitar, is inserted. Other „cantos de desafio“ are the „Trova por Milonga“ and the „Trova por Martelo“. The capacity of improvising verses begins in earliest childhood. In this research work the Brazilian „trova gaúcha“ is compared with the Argentine „pajada“. What they now call „pajada“ in Rio Grande do Sul has nothing to do with that form of „canto platino“. The „décima“ - narrative song of something which has actually happened - can be sung or recited, with or without an instrumental accompaniment. With the coming of the festivals of Chrismas Music in Rio Grande do Sul, these forms of regional songs were incentivated. (EFD)

Musik und Volksreligiosität in der Region von Santa Maria

Prof. Maria del Carmen Macchi
Zentrum für Künste und Literatur der Bundesuniversität von Santa Maria

The paper relates succinctly a project of research of the „Centro de Artes e Letras“ of the Federal University in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. The work was done by a group representing various branches. The main aim of the project was toi study the Feast of Our Lady Medriatrice of all Graces (fest that falls on the second sunday of November) and the Feast of our Lady of Pompéia (District of Silveira Martins) as being the most popular religious feasts in Rio Grande do Sul. A study has been attempted dealing with the complexity of the relationship betwenn the sacred and the profane. (EFD)

Das Ritual und die Musik des „Bumba Boi“ in Maranhão

Prof. Suely Ventura Neves

Folkloristin, Musikkonservatorium Niterói

The research, made in 1986, began with the idea of investigating musical instruments, the rhytme and melodies of the tradition relating to „Boi“ in Maranhão. However it was discovered that the music should bi considered within a complex of religious signification.. The „Bumba-Boi“ in Maranhão is a ritual during the period of the year from May, when the new songs are chosen and the bull is baptised, till August or September, whenn the bull’ss death is staged. The public staging takes place from the 23rd of Juni onwards. The groups of „Boi“ divide up into three groups: the „indigina“ or „indigenous“ or „native“ („nativa“) (the Bull with a rattle accent), the „African“ (Bull wirth a Zambube acccent) and the „White“ (Orchestra Bull), which represents distinct musical and choreographical characteristics. In spite of all the social transformations Maranhão is suffering from, the „Bumba-Boi“ will survive to be an integral part of the local religious-cultural identity. (EFD)

Musikfolklore von Pará: Notwendigkeit dessen Erhebung
Orlando Vieira Filho

Leiter der Musikaktivitäten der Bundesuniversität von Pará

There is a very rich patrimony of musical folklore which is in danger of extinction. In the profane field, the Carimbó, Siriá, Chila Marajoara, Lundu, Chote, Retumbão are given as dances accompanied by instrumental groups. In the religious field, one mayremember the litanies of the Island of Marajó, sung on the feasts of Saint Sebastian and Saint Benedict, among others. These litanies can be sung by groups that travel down the rivers in canoes. The Boi-Bumba is also mentioned as well as the „Pastorinhas“. Up to now the specialists have dedicated temselves to reflections of a sociological and anthropological character. It has bekome necessary to point out the urgent necessity of the simple recording, documentation, transmission and divulgation of this material. (EFD)

Bibliographischer Zusatz der Staatskommission für Folklore

E.A.Magalhães, Fernanda M. S. Macruz, José Gerardo M. Guimarães, Niomar de Souza Pereira, Zilda M.M. Rangel

The revue „Folklore“ edited by the Centre of Folklore Research „Mário de Andrade“ under Rossini Tavares de Lima’s direction, circulated from 1952 to 1953. Unfortunately this publication is little known to specialists. Of the 39 articles published, 19 are of special interest for musicology. Reference is made to the „music of Our Lady“. An analysis and description of the North-American songs circulating in Brazil is being made. The „batuque“, Saint Gonçalo’s dance, the feast of Saint Benedito, Cururu and a collection of children’s songs are being studied. (EFD)


Regierung des Staates São Paulo

Kultursekretariat des Staates São Paulo

Stadt São Paulo

FUNARTE - Nationalstiftung für Kunst

Villa-Lobos Museum, Rio de Janeiro

Internationaler Musikrat/UNESCO

Consociatio Internationalis Musicae Sacrae, CIMS

Staatsuniversität Júlio de Mesquita Filho

Instituto de Artes do Planalto

Universität von São Paulo

Universität von Rio de Janeiro

Universität von Ouro Preto

Bundesuniversität von Rio de Janeiro

Bundesuniversität von Minas Gerais

Bundesuniversität von Goiás

Bundesuniversität von Paraná

Bundesuniversität von Santa Catarina

Bundesuniversität von Rio Grande do Sul

Bundesuniversität von Bahia

Bundesuniversität von Santa Maria, RS

Päpstliche Universität von Paraná

Brasilianische Gesellschaft für Volkskunde

Brasilianische Gesellschaft für Akustik

Gesellschaft Pró-Música Antiga

Brasilianische Gesellschaft für zeitgenössischer Musik

Institut Technologischer Forschung, São Paulo

Brasilianisches Institut für Geographie und Statistik

Bibliothek der Schule für Kommunikation und Künste der Universität São Paulo, ECA

Institut für hymnologische und musikethnologische Studien, Maria Laach

Studienzentrum für Kunstsoziologie der Philosophischen Fakultät der Universität São Paulo

Musikfakultät Carlos Gomes

Museum der Universität São Paulo (Ipiranga-Museum)

Museum für Volkskunde São Paulo

Musikkonservatorium von Niterói

Musikabteilung des Methodistischen Instituts  für Hochschulstudien, São Bernardo do Campo

Gesellschaft für Gesang des Mittelsalters, São Paulo

Basilika Unsere Frau von Karmel

Symphonie Orchester der Universität São Paulo

Musikkonservatorium Brooklin Paulista
Chor Camargo Guarnieri, Poços de Caldas
Gregorianischer Chor Pius X, São Paulo